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الماء القلوي المتأين
2012-05-01 16:40:46
الماء القلوي المتأينليس علاجاً ولا دواء ولكن وسيلة يابانية آمنة ومتطورة وفعالة لمعادلة وإزالة الفضلا
M800 Direct Flow منظومه تحلية امريكية
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USA - M800
101SV-UVمنظومات تحلية امريكية
2010-12-17 15:35:27
101SV-UV USA - RO101SV-UV 5 stage Reverse Osmosis Water Purification System with Ultraviolet Sterilizer Specifications: Membrane: 80 GPD 302 LPD With a transformer, availabl
صور منظومات تحلية تايوانية ممنزلية
2010-12-17 09:47:28

منظومة تحلية منزلية امريكية S800
2010-12-17 08:59:34
Specifications: Production: 50 GPD 189 LPD Water storage tank: 2.2gallons 8.3 liters With a booster pump (optional): -Input in AC 110Volt, 220Volt or 240Volt (5060Hz). Operation

 
 

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1---Reverse Osmosis Questions  

  article1---Reverse Osmosis Questions

 

 What is the difference between NF & RO?

 

    

    Nanofiltration is a membrane liquid separation technology that is positioned between reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration. While RO can remove the smallest of solute molecules, in the range of 0.0001 micron in diameter and smaller, nanofiltration (NF) removes molecules in the 0.001 micron range.

NF is a poly piperazine amide membrane and is essentially a lower-pressure version of reverse osmosis where the purity of product water is not as critical as pharmaceutical grade water, for example, or the level of dissolved solids to be removed is less than what is typically encountered in brackish water or seawater. As such, nanofiltration is especially suited to treatment of well water or water from many surface supplies.

Nanofiltration is used where the high salt rejection of reverse osmosis is not necessary, and yet NF is still capable of removing hardness elements such as calcium or magnesium. Sometimes referred to as "membrane softening", nanofiltration is an attractive alternative to lime softening or sodium chloride zeolite softening technologies. And since NF operates on lower pressure than does RO, energy costs are lower than for a comparable RO treatment system.

 

 

I have seen RO systems with CTA and TFC membranes. The TFC units are higher in price. Are they necessarily better that the CTA? I want a small unit under the counter, about 10 GPD

 

The CTA membranes are chlorine tolerant whereas TFC membranes are not. The two systems should be very similar for your use.

 

 

 

What is the difference between dry and wet membranes?

 

 

When the thin-film membranes manufactured they are dry. These dry membranes have an indefinite shelf life, when stored properly. Membranes become wet when they are flushed or tested with water. Once wet the membranes can not be dried. The wet membranes must be preserved to prevent the growth of micro-organisms on them. This is done usually by using a 1-2% solution of sodium metabisulfite. For more details look for information on storing membranes.


Are Lead and Arsenic Removed by Thin Film Reverse Osmosis Membranes?  What are the rejection rates?


 

 

There is not a list of rejection rates for these heavy metals, but we can give you some general guidelines. However, we recommend that you run the experiments under your unique set of conditions and ions/counterions.

Rejection of lead by thin film RO membranes has been reported to be quite high, >99%.

The rejection of arsenic depends on its oxidation state. The +3 acid, arsenious, is not rejected particularly well in neutral solutions, 70 to 90%, but is well rejected as the pH approaches or exceeds the pKa of 9.2. The +5 arsenic acid is well rejected in neutral solution.

 


How can I remove the Silica from the water before passing it through the membranes?

 

 

There is no easy method. The conventional method used is lime soda softening but this is very expensive. In reverse osmosis no attempt is made to remove silica before the membranes. Instead the recovery and other operating conditions are adjusted to prevent silica supersaturation and precipitation.

For a GMP pharmaceutical water pretreatment system to be used for large scale WFI production, what are the options for removal of chloramines ?


Currently, the only two options for removal of chloramines are break-point chlorination, and utilization of catalytic carbon beds.

 


What is the difference between Flocon 260 Antiscalant/Dispersant and Coagulant?

 

 

Flocon 260 Antiscalant is used to keep water hardness from precipitating during reverse osmosis treatment of water.  The antiscalant also contains a dispersant which prevents iron or aluminum in water from reacting with the antiscalant and making it ineffective.

Coagulant, on the other hand, works just the opposite.  It is used to cause the suspended solids that may be present in water to coagulate and settle out.  By coagulation we mean that the very fine particles of suspended matter come together to become a larger cluster which will settle more easily than the smaller suspended particles.  The fine suspended particles in the water normally have an electrical charge.  The coagulate facilitates the removal of the charge, allowing the particles to coagulate and settle.   In short, coagulant is used to remove suspended solids.

In membrane process, coagulants are used only in rare situations.  Many coagulants can be harmful for the membranes.  Coagulants are commonly used in municipal water treatment systems.

In short:  Antiscalant is used for hardness, which is dissolved in the water, and coagulant is used for suspended solids.

 



 
 

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